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Co-ordinate Geometry (also called Analytical Geometry), or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a cartesian coordinate system in two (and three also) dimensions. In the cartesian coordinate system, each point has an x-coordinate representing its horizontal position (x axis), and a y-coordinate representing its vertical position (y axis). Thus, every point is typically written as an ordered pair (x, y). 

Distance Formula

The distance between two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is given by the formula:

Midpoint Formula

The formula for determining the midpoint of a line segment with endpoints (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is: